Siddiqi, Soviet Space:

This essay seeks to summarize the institutional, technological, and programmatic decisions of Soviet space power in the Cold War.

  • Almost all civilian space systems were derived from military counterparts.
  • The Soviets defined generations of capabilities by the particular (standard) satellite bus used.
  • More often than not, the Soviets prematurely declared systems to be "operational."
  • Almost all Soviet satellite projects had American equivalents.
  • The Soviets invested enormous resources in unrealized military projects.

Sturdevant, Giving Voice to Global Reach, Global Power:

In the four decades since the Air Force launched its first dedicated military communications satellites, the role of SATCOM in military operations has grown from practically imperceptible to unquestionably essential.

Systems designed to support nuclear commnad and control are slowly being replaced by systems more suitable for MCO requirements.

Newer, high-capacity systems are still not enough to satisfy network-centric doctrines of warfare: upwards of 70% of DoD SATCOM is leased from commercial providers- consider Singer's conclusions in Singer, Corporate Warriors (Lesson 10)

Cheng, The Long March Upward:

China has made self-reliance a hallmark of its space and missile programs.

China views its space program as a diplomatic and economic instrument, as well as a military instrument of power.

China's space program has been characterized by dual-use systems over the life of the program, much like the Soviet program

The PLA has exerted a significant influence on the Chinese space program.

  • The PLA observed the importance of space in Desert Storm and Allied Force, and the implications associated with domination of space in warfare.
  • The 2007 ASAT test demonstrates China's willingness and capability to contest space.
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